Wwii Short Stirling Heavy Bomber Free Aircraft Paper Model Download
MacRobert's Reply Philip Hamlyn Williams 2016-12-20 A story of British resilience in history's darkest hour. This is the true story of a widow making a donation to the RAF following the death of her three sons at the outbreak of WW2. Lady MacRobert requested that the money be used to buy a bomber as her way to reply to the Nazi regime. It was to be named 'MacRobert's Reply' and it would become perhaps the most famous Short Stirling bomber of the war. The story follows the donation by Lady MacRobert, the commissioning of the bomber and the allocation of its crew, and through various missions until it was shot down in May 1942 in Denmark. However the story then picks up the sole survivor, and his own miraculous survival and assistance by the Danish resistance movement, his capture by the Germans, and his arduous incarceration in Stalag VIIIB leading to his participation in the famous 'Long March' of POW's ahead of the advancing Russian red army. At the time of this book being launched on Amazon the sole survivor is 96 years old! A story to make you weep and smile, but above all a book to make you proud of the generation that fought for our freedom.
Wellington Martin W. Bowman 1998-02-01 Historien om Vickers Wellington beskrevet af de mænd, der fløj den.
Handley Page Halifax Jonathan Falconer 2016-05-01 The Halifax became the second of the new generation of four-engine heavy bombers to enter service with RAF Bomber Command in the Second World War. It flew its first offensive operation in March 1941 and by 1944 it had become the exclusive equipment for Bomber Command's 4 Group and 6 (Canadian) Group, as well as being used in smaller numbers by 100 (Bomber Support) Group. The Halifax flew on virtually all the main raids of the night offensive between 1942 and 1945 and the last occasion when Bomber Command Halifaxes operated in strength against the enemy was on 25 April 1945.
Stirling Bomber John Reid 2018-08
Illustrated World War II Encyclopedia Eddy Bauer 1978 An unbiased account of the most devastating war known to mankind ... contains the original text previously published in the United Kingdom plus background articles by a group of distinguished historians ... enlivened with color photographs recently uncovered.
1 Group: Swift to Attack Patrick Otter 2013-03-19 Following the recent unveiling of the monument to Bomber Command in London's Green Park, the publication of this lovingly crafted account of the exploits of oft-overlooked 1 Group is set to be a timely one. Patrick Otter combines an appropriate level of detail regarding operations, aircraft, bases and incidents, with accounts of human endurance and squadron fraternity, which works to create a thoroughly well researched account of the wartime proceedings of 1 Group which is rooted firmly in humanity. The book is heavily illustrated throughout with both images of aircraft and pilot profiles, supplementing the text perfectly and working further to humanize the accounts which the author relays, as well as satisfying the Aviation buffs curiosity for new and interesting images of aircraft in their wartime contexts. Although often considered a somewhat controversial operational unit, the bravery of the men who made up Bomber Command has never been in question. This book is further testament to that fact.
Bomber Squadron No 7 Tom Docherty 2007-07-01 This is the story of one of the RAF's oldest and most distinguished heavy bomber squadrons in WW2, although an outline history of the unit since it was formed in WW1 and its post-war history are included. It was the first operational Stirling Squadron, the RAF's first four engine heavy bomber, and flew the first long-distance raids into the heart of Nazi Germany. This new aircraft was a break-through in terms of range and bomb load but it was also an aircraft that suffered from many teething problems. Long-distance navigation was also a black art before the introduction of radio navigation systems and the squadron suffered many fatalities in those early wartime years. Having gained expertise in their task the unit was the first to be equipped with the H2S navigational aid and eventually became one of the original elite Pathfinder squadrons. When the Lancaster came into service the Squadron re-equipped and joined 8 Group and had the dubious reputation of suffering the third greatest loss of aircraft in Bomber Command. It did however participate in more Lancaster raids than any other 8 Group squadron.
Bomber Command Operations Manual Jonathan Falconer 2018-08-07 Night after night for six years of war, RAF Bomber Command's squadrons pounded away at the cities of Nazi Germany in a determined effort to bring the Third Reich to its knees. Pitted against Bomber Harris's aircrews and aircraft were some of the most effective and deadly defenses the world had seen up until then. For Bomber Command to launch a 'maximum effort' raid on the Ruhr by night, or a low-level strike on a target in enemy occupied Europe by day, it involved a huge amount of planning. Who decided what to bomb? Why, when and where were bomber airfields built? How was the overall command structure organized, from the Air Council down to individual squadron level? Who were the commanders and who were the men that made up the rank and file of the Command? How did the RAF train its bomber crews? What aircraft did they fly and what weapons did they use? How was a raid planned and once it was launched what happened? How was the effectiveness of a raid and bomber tactics analyzed afterwards? How did the RAF go about tracing the 'missing' (47,000 men 'failed to return' from operations)? How were damaged bombers repaired and made good again for operations? Useful appendices include a Bomber Command War Diary listing key events 1939-1945, squadrons and their commanders, an a-to-z of bomber airfields, and sample orders of battle from 1939, 1943 and 1945. Fully illustrated with some 300 photographs, the Bomber Command Operations Manual gives a compelling insight into the workings of one of the most powerful instruments of 20th century warfare.
The Strategic Air Offensive Against Germany Sir Charles Kingsley Webster 1961
Strike Hard, Strike Sure Ralph Barker 2003-07-01 Many thousand of words have been written about the conception of the bomber offensive in World War II; the strategy, tactics, choice of target systems, method of attack, the evaluation of bombing results and the implication for the national war effort. Surprisingly, little has been written of the men who flew these bombers. Here is the story of some of those men and the stirring action in which they took part. This edition has a new Introduction by the author.All these stories are eloquent of devotion and endurance ... all are moving. They are told graphically, without sensationalism - Times Literary SupplementTales of Supreme Bravery - Daily Telegraph
Short Stirling Pino Lombardi 2017-04-21
A Thousand Shall Fall Murray Peden 2003-01-01 In what has been hailed as one of the finest war memoirs ever written, Murray Peden recounts his experiences as a bomber with 214 Squadron during World War II.
Halifax Squadrons of World War 2 Jon Lake 1999-07-15 The second of Britain's four-engined bombers to enter frontline service during World War II (1939-1945), Handley Page's Halifax has forever lived in the shadow of Avro's superb Lancaster. However, it was a Halifax which became the first RAF 'heavy' to drop bombs on Germany when No 35 Sqn raided Hamburg on the night of 12/13 March 1941. Between 1941-45, the Halifax completed some 75,532 sorties [compared with the Lancaster's 156,000] with Bomber Command alone, not to mention its sterling work as both a glider tug and paratroop carrier with the Airborne Forces, maritime patrol mount with Coastal Command and covert intruder with the SOE.
Vickers Wellington Units of Bomber Command Michael Napier 2020-07-23 The Vickers Wellington was one of very few aircraft types to have been in production and frontline service throughout World War II, and more than 10,000 Wellingtons were built in the period. They took part in the first RAF bombing mission of the conflict when, on 4 September 1939, 14 examples from Nos 9 and 149 Sqns undertook a daring daylight attack on the Kiel Canal. However, after suffering high losses on follow-up raids, Wellingtons were withdrawn from daytime missions and began to operate at night from May 1940. They subsequently took part in raids against the Italian port city of Genoa in July 1940, and against Berlin the following month, followed by key missions in the 'Battle of the Barges' in September and October, as the RAF targeted the Germany's invasion fleet being assembled in French Channel ports. When RAF's strike force expanded the next year following the introduction of the improved Wellington II, the 21 squadrons equipped with the Vickers aircraft, which included Polish-, Canadian- and Australian-manned units, formed the backbone of the Bomber Command night bombing force. Over the next two years Wellingtons participated in all the major operations by Bomber Command, including the daylight raid against German battleships in Brest harbour in July 1942 and the first three 'Thousand Bomber' raids in the summer of 1942. This illustrated study explores the design, development, and deployment of the Vickers-Wellington type, charting its role in World War II from its earliest missions to its use in training after its withdrawal from frontline bomber missions in 1943. The text is supported by stunning full-colour artwork.
No Way Out Steven R. Whitby 2020-10-28 It was the first and only combat mission for the B-24 Liberator "Lady Be Good." On April 4, 1943, she left her base on the North African coast of Libya to bomb the port city of Naples, Italy. She never returned to base. It was not until the spring of 1959 that "Lady Be Good" was discovered by a BP oil exploration team almost 500 miles deep in the Libyan Desert, virtually intact, with no trace of the crew. What happened to the "Lady Be Good" is explored in this book. This includes the search for the crew and the subsequent mission to find the two US Army personnel lost during the initial search. The author interviewed personnel who took part in the recovery effort, and has included many unpublished photos taken at the crash site during the first USAF visit in 1959.
The Stirling Story Michael J. F. Bowyer 2002 Conceived in the shadow of looming war, when the RAF's bomber force was largely made up of obsolete and outmoded aircraft, the Stirling became the first British four-engined 'heavy' bomber of the Second World War. Developed, tested and brought into service in the first desperate years of the Second World War, the arrival of the Stirling marked a turning point in the aerial warfare of that conflict, the moment when the Allies went on the offensive against the German homeland. In the years that followed Stirling squadrons were at the forefront of the developing tactics of the Allied bomber campaign - target marking, pathfinding, electronic navigation, the thousand bomber raids etc. - that were ultimately to lead to the utter devastation of so many German cities. Despite this leading role the Stirling has never enjoyed the standing of the Halifax and the even more celebrated Lancaster. Handicapped by an unrealistic peacetime design specification, it could not match the performance of its more famous successors and was withdrawn from frontline service as deliveries of Lancasters and Halifaxes gathered momentum. However, even then the Stirling proved to be versatile and adaptable as a glider tug, transport in secret SOE operations, and later as a civilian transport in the immediate post-war years.The Stirling Story is the culmination of years of exhaustive research by one of the world's foremost aviation authors. From original design specification and testing, through its development, introduction to service, developing marks and later adaptations the full story of the Shorts Stirling bomber is told with the aid of eyewitness accounts from the designers, production workers, engineers and above all the crews of the Stirling. Much more than the history of just one aircraft type, The Stirling Story is the story of RAF Bomber Command emerging from obscurity and failure to become a devastatingly effective weapon of war. It is an essential work of reference that no serious military aviation enthusiast or war historian can afford to be without, as well as a fascinating read for anyone with any interest in, or connection with, the Shorts Stirling.'
Cradle of Aerospace Education Jerome A. Ennels 2018 "In Cradle of Airpower, an illustrated history of Maxwell's first century, readers will discover why the Wright brothers chose this land for their first pilot-training program and how that single choice contributed to a century of US military airpower advancement. How did the winds of war and the perils of politics influence the development of aircraft and all the teaching and learning that make the US Air Force the world's foremost airpower today?"--Provided by publisher.
Not as Briefed C. Ross Greening 2001-01-01 The author presents his personal drawings and narrative of his experiences during World War Two including his participation in the 1942 Doolittle raid over Tokyo, twenty-seven missions in North Africa, capture, and time as a POW in Barth, Germany.
Ship Busters! Ralph Barker 2012-11-15 A “vividly told” history of torpedo attacks from the air in the Second World War, by a member of the Royal Air Force (The Sunday Times). Low-level strikes against enemy shipping by torpedo-carrying aircraft were perhaps the most dangerous forms of air attack developed during WWII, and few isolated actions had such a direct impact on naval and military actions. This book tells the story of the RAF men involved, from the early attacks by single Beauforts off the Dutch and Norwegian coasts to the massed assaults of later years by the famous “strike-wings.” The author, who joined the RAF in 1940 as a wireless operator/ air gunner, and served in the UK, the Middle East, and West Africa, and whose career on torpedo work ended in a crash in which his pilot and navigator were killed, includes many historic actions: the lone moonlight attack by a twenty-two-year-old flight sergeant on the pocket-battleship Lützow; the torpedoing of the Gneisena in Brest harbor; the Channel Dash of the Scharnhorst, Gneisena, and Prinz Eugen and the heroic Swordfish attacks; and the vital strikes from Malta in 1942 against the Italian fleet and the supply shipping of the Afrika Korps. The result is a fascinating book, vivid in its true picture of aircrew life, stirring in its descriptions of heroic actions, intensely moving in its record of human endeavor.
Flight Artworks Gary Eason 2015-09-18 Collected in book form for the first time – and also available as an ebook – are some of Gary Eason's acclaimed Flight Artworks: carefully researched and crafted photorealistic pictures of historical air combat. This first volume presents images of WWII scenes, selected from artworks created since 2011."From my point of view as a pilot for the last 43 years and an RAF fighter pilot for 30 years, the realism he captures is uncanny ...". - Squadron Leader Clive Rowley MBE RAF (Retd)Third edition, September 2015
Luck of a Lancaster Gordon Thorburn 2013-08-19 No 9 Squadron of Bomber Command converted from the Wellington to the Lancaster in August 1942. W4964 was the seventieth Lanc to arrive on squadron, in mid April 1943. She flew her first op on the 20th, by which time No 9 had lost forty-one of their Lancs to enemy action and another five had been transferred to other squadrons and lost by them. No 9 would soon lose a further thirteen of the seventy. All of the remaining eleven would be damaged, repaired, transferred to other squadrons or training units, and lost to enemy action or crashes except for three which, in some kind of retirement, would last long enough to be scrapped after the war.Only one of the seventy achieved a century of ops or anything like it: W4964 WS-J.Across all squadrons and all the war, the average life of a Lancaster was 22.75 sorties, but rather less for the front-line squadrons going to Germany three and four times a week in 1943 and '44, which was when W4964 was flying her 107 sorties, all with No 9 Squadron and all from RAF Bardney. The first was Stettin (Szczecin in modern Poland), and thereafter she went wherever 9 Squadron went, to Berlin, the Ruhr, and most of the big ops of the time such as Peenemnde and Hamburg. She was given a special character as J-Johnny Walker, still going strong and on September 15 1944, skippered by Flight Lieutenant James Douglas Melrose, her Tallboy special bomb was the only one to hit the battleship Tirpitz.During her career, well over two hundred airmen flew in J. None were killed while doing so, but ninety-six of them died in other aircraft. This is their story, and the story of one lucky Lancaster.
The Army Air Forces in World War II: Men and planes 1948
Troopships of World War II Roland Wilbur Charles 1947 "This book contains authentic photographs and salient facts covering 358 troopships used in World War II. In addition, other vessels of miscellaneous character, including Victory and Liberty type temporary conversions for returning troops, are listed in the appendices ..."--Pref.
Boldness Be My Friend Richard Pape 2009-09-03 "Escape... escape... escape... by God!"' was his constant exhortation. "Never mind hunger pains, discomfort, or any other agony. Let escape become your passion, your one and only obsession until you finally reach home."' Shot down over Berlin in 1941, Richard Pape's saga of captivity is a story of courage unmatched in the annals of escape. Four escapes took him across the breadth of German-occupied Europe; to Poland and Czechoslovakia; to Austria and Hungary. Aggressive and impetuous, his adventures sweep the reader along on a torrent of excitement.
Aviation News 2005
Lancaster Squadrons 1942–43 Jon Lake 2002-05-25 Osprey's study of the RAF's most successful heavy bomber of World War II (1939-1945). The Avro Lancaster formed the backbone of Bomber Command during the large-scale night bombing campaign against occupied Europe. In this, the first of two volumes on the British bomber icon of World War 2, noted English aviation historian Jon Lake recounts the early daylight raids, the first 'thousand bomber' raids on Germany and the epic 'Dambusters' mission of 16/17 May 1943 by No 617 Sqn, as well as myriad other sorties to numerous German targets in 1942-43. This volume contains more than 100 photographs, 30 all-new colour profiles by leading aviation artist Chris Davey and specially commissioned scale drawings of the Lancaster B I/II by Mark Styling.
The Marshall Cavendish Illustrated Encyclopedia of World War II Eddy Bauer 1985
World War Ii British Bombers Source Wikipedia 2013-09 Please note that the content of this book primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online. Pages: 51. Chapters: De Havilland Mosquito, Bristol Blenheim, Bristol Beaufort, Avro Lancaster, Short Stirling, Handley Page Halifax, Fairey Barracuda, Armstrong Whitworth Whitley, Fairey Swordfish, Avro Manchester, Bristol Buckingham. Excerpt: The de Havilland DH.98 Mosquito was a British multi-role combat aircraft that served during the Second World War and the Post-war era. It was known affectionately as the "Mossie" to its crews and was also nicknamed "The Wooden Wonder." It saw service with the Royal Air Force (RAF) and many other air forces in the European theatre, the Pacific theatre of Operations and the Mediterranean Theatre, as well as during the postwar period. Originally conceived as an unarmed fast bomber, the Mosquito was adapted to many other roles during the air war, including: low to medium altitude daytime tactical bomber, high-altitude night bomber, pathfinder, day or night fighter, fighter-bomber, intruder, maritime strike aircraft, and fast photo-reconnaissance aircraft. It was also used by the British Overseas Airways Corporation (BOAC) as a transport. When the Mosquito entered production in 1941, it was one of the fastest operational aircraft in the world. Entering widespread service in 1942, the Mosquito supported RAF strategic night fighter defence forces in the United Kingdom from Luftwaffe raids, most notably defeating the German aerial offensive Operation Steinbock in 1944. Offensively, the Mosquito units also conducted night time fighter sweeps in indirect and direct protection of RAF Bomber Command's heavy bombers to help reduce RAF bomber losses in 1944 and 1945. The Mosquito increased German night fighter losses to such an extent the Germans were said to have awarded two victories for shooting one down. As a bomber it took part in "special raids," such as pinpoint attacks on prisoner-of-war camps to aid...
World War II 2004 A daily chronology of World War II as depicted in newspaper columns and press releases explores key figures and events, roles of spies and codebreakers, development in arts and literature, and influence of wartime propaganda.
All the U.S. Air Force Airplanes, 1907-1983 Andrew W. Waters 1983
75(NZ) Squadron Chris Ward 2018 Chris Ward's Profile of 75(NZ) Squadron is the long-awaited, definitive and comprehensive wartime account of this well-known and highly-regarded Bomber Command outfit. Produced with the full support and assistance of squadron veterans, the Royal New Zealand Air Force Association and the New Zealand Bomber Command Association, it is a testament to the duty and sacrifice of all those who served with this famous unit throughout the Second World War. Chris Ward's detailed narrative, based on the squadron's Second World War Operations Record Book, is complemented by several hundred photographs, many published for the first time. In 1938, the New Zealand government had ordered thirty Vickers Wellington Mk1 bombers. RNZAF aircrew were despatched to train on the new aircraft at RAF Marham, and then take them to their new home in the Southern Hemisphere. When war broke out, the New Zealand Government placed the aircraft and their crews at the disposal of the RAF to help fight the new enemy. Already known as 'The New Zealand Squadron', the unit was given the number 75 on 4 April 1940, the previous unit so numbered having been disbanded. This meant that the original nucleus of personnel remained together as an operational unit of the RAF. On 4 April 1940, The New Zealand Squadron was renamed 75(NZ) Squadron. Although often referred to as an RNZAF unit, it was wholly equipped and controlled by the RAF until the end of the conflict. It was a key component of No. 3 Group, Bomber Command, and was based initially at RAF Feltwell, then RAF Mildenhall, RAF Newmarket and RAF Mepal, in Cambridgeshire. The unit saw action over France, Norway, Belgium, Italy, Sweden and Germany, distinguishing itself in the process. The squadron operated with a strength of three Flights after receiving Short Stirling bombers. In line with the rest of No. 3 Group, the squadron re-equipped with the Avro Lancaster in 1944, the type seeing the unit through to August 1945. 75(NZ) Sqn operated against the Germans from 1940 to VE Day, flying more sorties than any other allied heavy bomber squadron, suffering the second highest number of casualties. A Victoria Cross was awarded to Sgt J A Ward for climbing out onto the wing of his Wellington on an operation over Europe, in an attempt to put out an engine fire. Although badly damaged by enemy fighters' cannon shells, the aircraft managed to return to its base.
Avro Lancaster - Handley Page Halifax - Short S.29 Stirling Mantelli - Brown - Kittel - Graf 2017-03-08 The Avro Lancaster was a four-engine heavy bomber used by the RAF in 1942 and, together with the Handley Page Halifax, was the main strategic bomber of the RAF and other air forces of the Commonwealth countries. It was mainly used as a night bomber. Around 7,378 were realized Lancaster (excluding prototypes), 430 of them in Canada and they were lost in action 3,932. The Handley Page Halifax was a major British four-engined heavy bombers, remaining in service until the end of the conflict, with numerous tasks in addition to bombing. Halifax's career began in November 1940 and continued until the end of the war. These four engine, however, continued to operate, albeit in minor roles, until 1954-56. In practice, however, the Lancaster showed better performance and as soon as it was available in sufficient numbers, he replaced the Halifax. The Short S.29 Stirling was a British heavy bomber, the first in its class. Along with Lancaster and the Halifax constitute the three main bombers used by Britain in World War II with capacity of bombs from 6,000 kg to 10,000 kg Bomb Grand Slam, one of the heaviest bombs ever built.
The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Combat Aircraft of World War II Bill Gunston 1978 Contains more than seven hundred illustrations of military aircraft of World War II used by both Allied and Axis Countries, together with capsule specifications and history
B-29 Superfortress, Vol. 1 David Doyle 2020-03-22 The Boeing B-29 Superfortress was not only the largest and most advanced US aircraft to see combat in World War II, it was also the most expensive weapons system of the war, even exceeding the cost of developing the atomic bomb--the weapon that ultimately would be delivered to Hiroshima and Nagasaki by a pair of B-29s in August 1945. Through a broad range of photos gathered from around the world, this book, the first of a two-volume series, chronicles the design, development, and World War II combat of the iconic Superfortress. The story of this historic aircraft is told through carefully researched photos, which are reproduced in remarkable clarity. Large, clear photos, coupled with descriptive and informative captions, unlock the secrets of this aircraft.
A Century of Triumph Christopher Chant 2002 An illustrated history of aviation retraces humankind's fascination with flight, from the Wright Brother's famous 1903 flight through the triumphs of technology manifest in the Stealth Bomber and beyond.
Short Stirling Units of World War 2 Jonathan Falconer 2018-04-19 Of the RAF's trio of four-engined heavy bombers in World War 2, the mighty Short Stirling was the first to enter service in August 1940. From its first raid in February 1941, the Stirling was at the forefront of the British night bombing offensive against Germany before unacceptably high losses forced its relegation to second-line duties later in the war. In its modified form as the Mark IV the Stirling fulfilled vital roles with the RAF as a paratroop transport and glider tug on D-Day, at Arnhem and on the Rhine crossing as well as flying countless Special Duties operations over Occupied Europe and Norway. Its last gasp was in 1948-49 when a handful of Mk Vs were acquired by the Royal Egyptian Air Force to bomb Israel in the First Arab–Israeli War. Containing numerous first-hand combat accounts from the crews that flew the bomber and detailed profile artwork, Short Stirling Units of World War 2 uncovers the history of one of the RAF's greatest World War 2 bombers.
Strategy For Defeat: The Luftwaffe, 1933-1945 [Illustrated Edition] Williamson Murray 2015-11-06 Includes the Aerial Warfare In Europe During World War II illustrations pack with over 200 maps, plans, and photos. This book is a comprehensive analysis of an air force, the Luftwaffe, in World War II. It follows the Germans from their prewar preparations to their final defeat. There are many disturbing parallels with our current situation. I urge every student of military science to read it carefully. The lessons of the nature of warfare and the application of airpower can provide the guidance to develop our fighting forces and employment concepts to meet the significant challenges we are certain to face in the future.
German Flak Defences vs Allied Heavy Bombers Donald Nijboer 2019-10-31 Since the end of World War II, the strategic bombing of Germany has inspired numerous studies, countless books and several documentary films, and it is not surprising. With more than one million tons of bombs dropped, close to 300,000 civilians killed, 700,000 wounded and in excess of 3,500,000 industrial and residential structures destroyed, the Allied bomber offensive was industrial war on a grand scale. The air battle that raged over Germany has often been described as a battle between Allied and German fighters but what has been frequently missed by historians on all sides is the impact of German anti-aircraft defences (flak). Though often dismissed as ineffective and a waste of valuable material and personnel, the German flak arm made a major contribution to the defence of the Third Reich – at least half of the American aircraft shot down over Germany fell to flak, and according to the RAF Official History, it was estimated that flak accounted for 1229 of 3302 aircraft lost by Bomber Command between 1942 and April 1945. Additionally, the strategic role of flak extended beyond simply shooting down aircraft – its other, more important task was to force bombers to drop their ordnance sooner or from a higher altitude, thus reducing bombing accuracy. Both these roles are explored in depth in this detailed study of the German flak defences and of their adversaries, the Allied heavy bombers. Containing full-colour illustrations including cockpit scenes and armament views, this is the definitive guide to the much-overlooked conflict between Allied planes and German anti-aircraft defences.