Life Size Skull Helmet Free Papercraft Template Download
Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery for the Clinician Krishnamurthy Bonanthaya 2021 This book is an open access book with CC BY 4.0 license. This comprehensive open access textbook provides a comprehensive coverage of principles and practice of oral and maxillofacial surgery. With a range of topics starting from routine dentoalveolar surgery to advanced and complex surgical procedures, this volume is a meaningful combination of text and illustrations including clinical photos, radiographs, and videos. It provides guidance on evidence-based practices in context to existing protocols, guidelines and recommendations to help readers deal with most clinical scenarios in their daily surgical work. This multidisciplinary textbook is meant for postgraduate trainees, young practicing oral surgeons and experienced clinicians, as well as those preparing for university and board certification exams. It also aids in decision-making, the implementation of treatment plans and the management of complications that may arise. This book is an initiative of Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons of India (AOMSI) to its commitment to academic medicine. As part of this commitment, this textbook is in open access to help ensure widest possible dissemination to readers across the world.
All Quiet on the Western Front Erich Maria Remarque 1996-09-29 Considered by many the greatest war novel of all time, All Quiet on the Western Front is Erich Maria Remarque’s masterpiece of the German experience during World War I. I am young, I am twenty years old; yet I know nothing of life but despair, death, fear, and fatuous superficiality cast over an abyss of sorrow. . . . This is the testament of Paul Bäumer, who enlists with his classmates in the German army during World War I. They become soldiers with youthful enthusiasm. But the world of duty, culture, and progress they had been taught breaks in pieces under the first bombardment in the trenches. Through years of vivid horror, Paul holds fast to a single vow: to fight against the principle of hate that meaninglessly pits young men of the same generation but different uniforms against one another . . . if only he can come out of the war alive. “The world has a great writer in Erich Maria Remarque. He is a craftsman of unquestionably first rank, a man who can bend language to his will. Whether he writes of men or of inanimate nature, his touch is sensitive, firm, and sure.”—The New York Times Book Review
SPIN 1996-10 From the concert stage to the dressing room, from the recording studio to the digital realm, SPIN surveys the modern musical landscape and the culture around it with authoritative reporting, provocative interviews, and a discerning critical ear. With dynamic photography, bold graphic design, and informed irreverence, the pages of SPIN pulsate with the energy of today's most innovative sounds. Whether covering what's new or what's next, SPIN is your monthly VIP pass to all that rocks.
Complete Catalog of Books in All Fields Dover Publications, Inc 1997
Navajo-English Dictionary C. Leon Wall 1958 In response to a recent surge of interest in Native American history, culture, and lore, Hippocrene brings you a concise and straightforward dictionary of the Navajo tongue. The dictionary is designed to aid Navajos learning English as well as English speakers interested in acquiring knowledge of Navajo. The largest of all the Native American tribes, the Navajo number about 125,000 and live mostly on reservations in Arizona, New Mexico, and Utah. Over 9,000 entries; A detailed section on Navajo pronunciation; A comprehensive, modern vocabulary; Useful, everyday expressions.
The Antiquary Edward Walford 1899
Harper's Weekly John Bonner 1857
The Brain That Changes Itself Norman Doidge 2007-03-15 “Fascinating. Doidge’s book is a remarkable and hopeful portrait of the endless adaptability of the human brain.”—Oliver Sacks, MD, author of The Man Who Mistook His Wife for a Hat What is neuroplasticity? Is it possible to change your brain? Norman Doidge’s inspiring guide to the new brain science explains all of this and more An astonishing new science called neuroplasticity is overthrowing the centuries-old notion that the human brain is immutable, and proving that it is, in fact, possible to change your brain. Psychoanalyst, Norman Doidge, M.D., traveled the country to meet both the brilliant scientists championing neuroplasticity, its healing powers, and the people whose lives they’ve transformed—people whose mental limitations, brain damage or brain trauma were seen as unalterable. We see a woman born with half a brain that rewired itself to work as a whole, blind people who learn to see, learning disorders cured, IQs raised, aging brains rejuvenated, stroke patients learning to speak, children with cerebral palsy learning to move with more grace, depression and anxiety disorders successfully treated, and lifelong character traits changed. Using these marvelous stories to probe mysteries of the body, emotion, love, sex, culture, and education, Dr. Doidge has written an immensely moving, inspiring book that will permanently alter the way we look at our brains, human nature, and human potential.
Scientific American 1907
Bow Bells 1873
3D Jungle Animal Masks Steve Wintercroft 2017-04-15 Wintercroft masks have caught the imagination of creative people and festival-goers around the globe. Designed by Steve Wintercroft, an artist with a passion for craftsmanship and conservation, these masks have been used everywhere from music videos and fashion shoots to theatre productions and political campaigns. Pop out, build and wear FOUR Jungle Animal masks in amazing low-poly design. A PARROT, ELEPHANT, TIGER and MONKEY are included in this pack! Each mask is beautifully designed with low-poly graphics on one side and a colouring-in pattern on the other for a colourful alternative!
The Independent Leonard Bacon 1889
Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater American Public Health Association 1912 "The signature undertaking of the Twenty-Second Edition was clarifying the QC practices necessary to perform the methods in this manual. Section in Part 1000 were rewritten, and detailed QC sections were added in Parts 2000 through 7000. These changes are a direct and necessary result of the mandate to stay abreast of regulatory requirements and a policy intended to clarify the QC steps considered to be an integral part of each test method. Additional QC steps were added to almost half of the sections."--Pref. p. iv.
Translational Research in Traumatic Brain Injury Daniel Laskowitz 2015-12-01 Traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains a significant source of death and permanent disability, contributing to nearly one-third of all injury related deaths in the United States and exacting a profound personal and economic toll. Despite the increased resources that have recently been brought to bear to improve our understanding of TBI, the development of new diagnostic and therapeutic approaches has been disappointingly slow. Translational Research in Traumatic Brain Injury attempts to integrate expertise from across specialties to address knowledge gaps in the field of TBI. Its chapters cover a wide scope of TBI research in five broad areas: Epidemiology Pathophysiology Diagnosis Current treatment strategies and sequelae Future therapies Specific topics discussed include the societal impact of TBI in both the civilian and military populations, neurobiology and molecular mechanisms of axonal and neuronal injury, biomarkers of traumatic brain injury and their relationship to pathology, neuroplasticity after TBI, neuroprotective and neurorestorative therapy, advanced neuroimaging of mild TBI, neurocognitive and psychiatric symptoms following mild TBI, sports-related TBI, epilepsy and PTSD following TBI, and more. The book integrates the perspectives of experts across disciplines to assist in the translation of new ideas to clinical practice and ultimately to improve the care of the brain injured patient.
Scientific American 1916 Monthly magazine devoted to topics of general scientific interest.
Invisible Women Caroline Criado Perez 2019-03-12 Data is fundamental to the modern world. From economic development, to healthcare, to education and public policy, we rely on numbers to allocate resources and make crucial decisions. But because so much data fails to take into account gender, because it treats men as the default and women as atypical, bias and discrimination are baked into our systems. And women pay tremendous costs for this bias, in time, money, and often with their lives. Celebrated feminist advocate Caroline Criado Perez investigates shocking root cause of gender inequality and research in Invisible Women†‹, diving into women’s lives at home, the workplace, the public square, the doctor’s office, and more. Built on hundreds of studies in the US, the UK, and around the world, and written with energy, wit, and sparkling intelligence, this is a groundbreaking, unforgettable exposé that will change the way you look at the world.
A Little History of the World E. H. Gombrich 2014-10-01 E. H. Gombrich's Little History of the World, though written in 1935, has become one of the treasures of historical writing since its first publication in English in 2005. The Yale edition alone has now sold over half a million copies, and the book is available worldwide in almost thirty languages. Gombrich was of course the best-known art historian of his time, and his text suggests illustrations on every page. This illustrated edition of the Little History brings together the pellucid humanity of his narrative with the images that may well have been in his mind's eye as he wrote the book. The two hundred illustrations—most of them in full color—are not simple embellishments, though they are beautiful. They emerge from the text, enrich the author's intention, and deepen the pleasure of reading this remarkable work. For this edition the text is reset in a spacious format, flowing around illustrations that range from paintings to line drawings, emblems, motifs, and symbols. The book incorporates freshly drawn maps, a revised preface, and a new index. Blending high-grade design, fine paper, and classic binding, this is both a sumptuous gift book and an enhanced edition of a timeless account of human history.
We Are Paper Toys: Print-Cut-Fold-Glue-Fun Louis Bou 2010-06-15 We Are Paper Toys! presents thirty-two of the finest paper toy designers in the world. Each artist gives us a glimpse of their world and explains their passion for paper toys through a personal interview. The book includes a CD with PDF templates of some of the paper toys showcased in this book. They are ready to be printed, cut, and pasted so you can have these small works of art in your own home. It's never too soon to start cutting, folding, pasting, and above all, having fun!
The Illustrated London News 1851
Bright Futures American Academy of Pediatrics 2017-01 This essential resource provides key background information and recommendations for themes critical to healthy child development along with well-child supervision standards for 31 age-based visits--from Newborn through 21 Years. What's in the Bright Futures Guidelines, Fourth Edition? Twelve health promotion themes addressing - lifelong health for families and communities NEW - family support - health for children and youth with special health care needs NEW - healthy development - mental health - healthy weight - healthy nutrition - physical activity - oral health - healthy adolescent development - healthy and safe use of social media NEW - safety and injury prevention 31 age-based health supervision visits--Newborn to 21 Years All the information and guidance that's needed to give children optimal health outcomes -Context -Health Supervision -History -Surveillance of Development -Review of Systems -Observation of Parent-Child Interaction -Physical Examination -Medical Screening -Immunizations -Anticipatory Guidance What's NEW in the 4th Edition? -Builds upon previous editions with new and updated content that reflects the latest research. -Incorporates evidence-driven recommendations. -Includes three new health promotion themes: -Promoting Lifelong Health for Families and Communities -Promoting Health for Children and Youth With Special Health Care Needs -Promoting the Healthy and Safe Use of Social Media -Includes new screen time recommendations -Provides greater focus on lifelong physical and mental health -Weaves social determinants of health throughout the Visits, allowing health care professionals to consider social factors like food insecurity, violence, and drug use that may affect a child's and family's health -Features updated Milestones of Development and Developmental Surveillance questions -Provides new clinical content that informs health care professionals about the latest recommendations and provides guidance on how to implement them in practice -Maternal depression screening, Safe sleep, Iron supplementation in breast fed infants, Fluoride varnish, Dyslipidemia blood screening -Includes updates to several Adolescent screenings With Bright Futures, health care professionals can accomplish 4 tasks in 18 minutes -Disease detection -Disease prevention -Health promotion -Anticipatory guidance What is Bright Futures? -A set of theory-based, evidence-driven, and systems-oriented principles, strategies, and tools that health care professionals can use to improve the health and well-being of children through culturally appropriate interventions. Bright Futures addresses the current and emerging health promotion needs of families, clinical practices, communities, health systems, and policymakers. -The Bright Futures Guidelines are the blueprint for health supervision visits for all children. -Bright Futures is the health promotion and disease prevention part of the patient-centered medical home. Who can use Bright Futures? -Child health professionals and practice staff who directly provide primary care -Parents and youth who participate in well-child visits -Public Health Professionals -Policymakers -Pediatric Educators -MD Residents
The academy 1876
Game of Thrones Mask: House Stark Direwolf (3D Mask & Wall Mount) Wintercroft 2017-10-10 The North remembers, thanks to these unique Game of Thrones gifts. Inspired by the sigil from the award-winning television series Game of Thrones, this official book contains a full-sized 3D House Stark Direwolf mask and wall mount. Assemble it yourself from the beautifully illustrated push-out pieces, then wear it, mount it on the wall, or simply admire it. But be quick, because winter is coming. . . .
Anything But Typical Nora Raleigh Baskin 2010-03-09 Jason, a twelve-year-old autistic boy who wants to become a writer, relates what his life is like as he tries to make sense of his world.
Wonder R. J. Palacio 2017-09-26 "Now a major motion picture! Includes full-color movie photos and exclusive content!"--Dust jacket.
Chivalric Stories as Childrenäó»s Literature Velma Bourgeois Richmond 2014-09-18 Knights and ladies, giants and dragons, tournaments, battles, quests and crusades are commonplace in stories for children. This book examines how late Victorians and Edwardians retold medieval narratives of chivalry—epics, romances, sagas, legends and ballads. Stories of Beowulf, Arthur, Gawain, St. George, Roland, Robin Hood and many more thrilled and instructed children, and encouraged adult reading. Lavish volumes and schoolbooks of the era featured illustrated texts, many by major artists. Children’s books, an essential part of Edwardian publishing, were disseminated throughout the English-speaking world. Many are being reprinted today. This book examines related contexts of Medievalism expressed in painting, architecture, music and public celebrations, and the works of major authors, including Sir Walter Scott, Tennyson, Longfellow and William Morris. The book explores national identity expressed through literature, ideals of honor and valor in the years before World War I, and how childhood reading influenced 20th–century writers as diverse as C. S. Lewis, J. R. R. Tolkien, Siegfried Sassoon, David Jones, Graham Greene, Ian Fleming and John Le Carré.
Lucky Cats Paper Dolls Maggie Swanson 2012-04-19 Two adorable kitty paper dolls, based on the Asian legend of the raised paw or "beckoning" cat, come with more than 40 fanciful costumes and a bonus poster with dozens of stickers.
Fahrenheit 451 Ray Bradbury 1951 A totalitarian regime has ordered all books to be destroyed, but one of the book burners suddenly realizes their merit.
Unbroken Laura Hillenbrand 2014-07-29 #1 NEW YORK TIMES BESTSELLER • NOW A MAJOR MOTION PICTURE • Look for special features inside. Join the Random House Reader’s Circle for author chats and more. In boyhood, Louis Zamperini was an incorrigible delinquent. As a teenager, he channeled his defiance into running, discovering a prodigious talent that had carried him to the Berlin Olympics. But when World War II began, the athlete became an airman, embarking on a journey that led to a doomed flight on a May afternoon in 1943. When his Army Air Forces bomber crashed into the Pacific Ocean, against all odds, Zamperini survived, adrift on a foundering life raft. Ahead of Zamperini lay thousands of miles of open ocean, leaping sharks, thirst and starvation, enemy aircraft, and, beyond, a trial even greater. Driven to the limits of endurance, Zamperini would answer desperation with ingenuity; suffering with hope, resolve, and humor; brutality with rebellion. His fate, whether triumph or tragedy, would be suspended on the fraying wire of his will. Appearing in paperback for the first time—with twenty arresting new photos and an extensive Q&A with the author—Unbroken is an unforgettable testament to the resilience of the human mind, body, and spirit, brought vividly to life by Seabiscuit author Laura Hillenbrand. Hailed as the top nonfiction book of the year by Time magazine • Winner of the Los Angeles Times Book Prize for biography and the Indies Choice Adult Nonfiction Book of the Year award “Extraordinarily moving . . . a powerfully drawn survival epic.”—The Wall Street Journal “[A] one-in-a-billion story . . . designed to wrench from self-respecting critics all the blurby adjectives we normally try to avoid: It is amazing, unforgettable, gripping, harrowing, chilling, and inspiring.”—New York “Staggering . . . mesmerizing . . . Hillenbrand’s writing is so ferociously cinematic, the events she describes so incredible, you don’t dare take your eyes off the page.”—People “A meticulous, soaring and beautifully written account of an extraordinary life.”—The Washington Post “Ambitious and powerful . . . a startling narrative and an inspirational book.”—The New York Times Book Review “Magnificent . . . incredible . . . [Hillenbrand] has crafted another masterful blend of sports, history and overcoming terrific odds; this is biography taken to the nth degree, a chronicle of a remarkable life lived through extraordinary times.”—The Dallas Morning News “An astonishing testament to the superhuman power of tenacity.”—Entertainment Weekly “A tale of triumph and redemption . . . astonishingly detailed.”—O: The Oprah Magazine “[A] masterfully told true story . . . nothing less than a marvel.”—Washingtonian “[Hillenbrand tells this] story with cool elegance but at a thrilling sprinter’s pace.”—Time “Hillenbrand [is] one of our best writers of narrative history. You don’t have to be a sports fan or a war-history buff to devour this book—you just have to love great storytelling.”—Rebecca Skloot, author of The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks
The Academy and Literature 1876
The Strange Case of Origami Yoda (Origami Yoda #1) Tom Angleberger 2012-08-07 In this funny, uncannily wise portrait of the dynamics of a sixth-grade class and of the greatness that sometimes comes in unlikely packages, Dwight, a loser, talks to his classmates via an origami finger puppet of Yoda. If that weren’t strange enough, the puppet is uncannily wise and prescient. Origami Yoda predicts the date of a pop quiz, guesses who stole the classroom Shakespeare bust, and saves a classmate from popularity-crushing embarrassment with some well-timed advice. Dwight’s classmate Tommy wonders how Yoda can be so smart when Dwight himself is so clueless. With contributions from his puzzled classmates, Tommy assembles this first case file in the blockbuster bestselling Origami Yoda series, written by Tom Angleberger, author of Star Wars: Return of the Jedi: Beware the Power of the Dark Side, and hailed by School Library Journal as “honest, funny, and immensely entertaining.” F&P Level: T F&P Genre: RF
Signs and Symbols Adrian Frutiger 1998 Discusses the elements of a sign, and looks at pictograms, alphabets, calligraphy, monograms, text type, numerical signs, symbols, and trademarks
Lightning Thief, The (Percy Jackson and the Olympians, Book 1) Rick Riordan 2009-05-02 Percy Jackson is a good kid, but he can't seem to focus on his schoolwork or control his temper. And lately, being away at boarding school is only getting worse-Percy could have sworn his pre-algebra teacher turned into a monster and tried to kill him.
Gothiniad Surazeus Astarius 2018-01-17 Gothiniad of Surazeus - Oracle of Gotha presents 150,792 lines of verse in 1,948 poems, lyrics, ballads, sonnets, dramatic monologues, eulogies, hymns, and epigrams written by Surazeus 1993 to 2000.
Popular Science 1988-12 Popular Science gives our readers the information and tools to improve their technology and their world. The core belief that Popular Science and our readers share: The future is going to be better, and science and technology are the driving forces that will help make it better.
Rhythms of the Brain Gyorgy Buzsaki 2006-08-03 This book provides eloquent support for the idea that spontaneous neuron activity, far from being mere noise, is actually the source of our cognitive abilities. In a sequence of "cycles," György Buzsáki guides the reader from the physics of oscillations through neuronal assembly organization to complex cognitive processing and memory storage. His clear, fluid writing-accessible to any reader with some scientific knowledge-is supplemented by extensive footnotes and references that make it just as gratifying and instructive a read for the specialist. The coherent view of a single author who has been at the forefront of research in this exciting field, this volume is essential reading for anyone interested in our rapidly evolving understanding of the brain.
The Things They Carried Tim O'Brien 2009-10-13 A classic work of American literature that has not stopped changing minds and lives since it burst onto the literary scene, The Things They Carried is a ground-breaking meditation on war, memory, imagination, and the redemptive power of storytelling. The Things They Carried depicts the men of Alpha Company: Jimmy Cross, Henry Dobbins, Rat Kiley, Mitchell Sanders, Norman Bowker, Kiowa, and the character Tim O’Brien, who has survived his tour in Vietnam to become a father and writer at the age of forty-three. Taught everywhere—from high school classrooms to graduate seminars in creative writing—it has become required reading for any American and continues to challenge readers in their perceptions of fact and fiction, war and peace, courage and fear and longing. The Things They Carried won France's prestigious Prix du Meilleur Livre Etranger and the Chicago Tribune Heartland Prize; it was also a finalist for the Pulitzer Prize and the National Book Critics Circle Award.
Handbook to Life in the Aztec World Manuel Aguilar-Moreno 2007 Since its violent dissolution in 1521, the Aztec Empire of Mexico has continually intrigued us. Recent discoveries resulting from the excavation of the Templo Mayor in the heart of Mexico City have taught us even more about this fascinating culture. The increasing recognition that the achievements of Mesoamerican civilizations were among the most sophisticated of the ancient world has led to a demand for introductions to the basic methods and theories of scholars working throughout the region. Handbook to Life in the Aztec World gathers the results from recent archaeological discoveries and scholarly research into a single accessible volume. Organized thematically, the handbook covers all aspects of life in the Aztec world: Mesoamerican civilizations and Aztec archeology; evolution of Aztec civilization; geography of the Aztec world; society and government; religion, cosmology, and mythology; funerary beliefs and customs; Aztec art; Aztec architecture; Nahuatl literature; the calendar, astronomy, and mathematics; economy, industry, and trade; daily life; the Aztec after conquest and today. Each chapter includes an extensive bibliography, and more than 165 original line drawings, photographs, and maps complement the text. Handbook to Life in the Aztec World provides all the essential information required by anyone interested in Aztec history or culture.
Handbook on Craniofacial Superimposition Sergio Damas 2019-11-05 This open access handbook presents a trustable craniofacial superimposition methodological framework. It includes detailed technical and practical overviews, and discussions about the latest tools and open problems, covering the educational, technical, ethical, and security aspects of this forensic identification technique. The book will be of particular interest to researchers and practitioners in forensic anthropology and forensic ID, and also researchers in computational intelligence. It is the final result of a European project, New Methodologies and Protocols of Forensic Identification by Craniofacial Superimposition (MEPROCS). The project collaborators who contributed to this handbook are: S. Damas, O. Ibáñez, M.I. Huete, T. Kahana, C. Wilkinson, E. Ferguson, C. Erolin, C. Cattaneo, P.T. Jayaprakash, R. Jankauskas, F. Cavalli, K. Imaizumi, R. Vicente, D. Navega, E. Cunha, A.H. Ross, E. Veselovskaya, A. Abramov, P. Lestón, F. Molinero, E. Ruiz, F. Navarro, J. Cardoso, F. Viegas, D. Humpire, R. Hardiman, J. Clement, A. Valsecchi, B.R. Campomanes-Alvarez, C. Campomanes-Alvarez, A.S. Çağdır, T. Briers, M. Steyn, M. Viniero, D.N. Vieira, and O. Cordón.
How Tobacco Smoke Causes Disease U. s. Department of Health and Human Services Staff 2010 This report considers the biological and behavioral mechanisms that may underlie the pathogenicity of tobacco smoke. Many Surgeon General's reports have considered research findings on mechanisms in assessing the biological plausibility of associations observed in epidemiologic studies. Mechanisms of disease are important because they may provide plausibility, which is one of the guideline criteria for assessing evidence on causation. This report specifically reviews the evidence on the potential mechanisms by which smoking causes diseases and considers whether a mechanism is likely to be operative in the production of human disease by tobacco smoke. This evidence is relevant to understanding how smoking causes disease, to identifying those who may be particularly susceptible, and to assessing the potential risks of tobacco products.
Sports-Related Concussions in Youth National Research Council 2014-02-04 In the past decade, few subjects at the intersection of medicine and sports have generated as much public interest as sports-related concussions - especially among youth. Despite growing awareness of sports-related concussions and campaigns to educate athletes, coaches, physicians, and parents of young athletes about concussion recognition and management, confusion and controversy persist in many areas. Currently, diagnosis is based primarily on the symptoms reported by the individual rather than on objective diagnostic markers, and there is little empirical evidence for the optimal degree and duration of physical rest needed to promote recovery or the best timing and approach for returning to full physical activity. Sports-Related Concussions in Youth: Improving the Science, Changing the Culture reviews the science of sports-related concussions in youth from elementary school through young adulthood, as well as in military personnel and their dependents. This report recommends actions that can be taken by a range of audiences - including research funding agencies, legislatures, state and school superintendents and athletic directors, military organizations, and equipment manufacturers, as well as youth who participate in sports and their parents - to improve what is known about concussions and to reduce their occurrence. Sports-Related Concussions in Youth finds that while some studies provide useful information, much remains unknown about the extent of concussions in youth; how to diagnose, manage, and prevent concussions; and the short- and long-term consequences of concussions as well as repetitive head impacts that do not result in concussion symptoms. The culture of sports negatively influences athletes' self-reporting of concussion symptoms and their adherence to return-to-play guidance. Athletes, their teammates, and, in some cases, coaches and parents may not fully appreciate the health threats posed by concussions. Similarly, military recruits are immersed in a culture that includes devotion to duty and service before self, and the critical nature of concussions may often go unheeded. According to Sports-Related Concussions in Youth, if the youth sports community can adopt the belief that concussions are serious injuries and emphasize care for players with concussions until they are fully recovered, then the culture in which these athletes perform and compete will become much safer. Improving understanding of the extent, causes, effects, and prevention of sports-related concussions is vitally important for the health and well-being of youth athletes. The findings and recommendations in this report set a direction for research to reach this goal.