Evolutionary Models of Convergent Margins Yasuto Itoh 2017-06-21 This book deals with recent developments in evolutionary models for convergent margins. Reflecting transient modes for oceanic plate convergence, such boundaries are sites of varied tectonic processes, which provoke vigorous material recycling and frequent natural disasters such as massive earthquakes and catastrophic volcanism. Therefore, the origin of their diversity has long been one of the most significant themes in Earth science. The important scientific results obtained by prominent researchers who contributed chapters to this book pave the way for further in-depth studies on mobile belt frontiers, where harsh conditions hinder efforts to understand the Earth's spatiotemporal changes.
Sea Change Committee on Guidance for NSF on National Ocean Science Research Priorities: Decadal Survey of Ocean Sciences 2015-05-19 Ocean science connects a global community of scientists in many disciplines - physics, chemistry, biology, geology and geophysics. New observational and computational technologies are transforming the ability of scientists to study the global ocean with a more integrated and dynamic approach. This enhanced understanding of the ocean is becoming ever more important in an economically and geopolitically connected world, and contributes vital information to policy and decision makers charged with addressing societal interests in the ocean. Science provides the knowledge necessary to realize the benefits and manage the risks of the ocean. Comprehensive understanding of the global ocean is fundamental to forecasting and managing risks from severe storms, adapting to the impacts of climate change, and managing ocean resources. In the United States, the National Science Foundation (NSF) is the primary funder of the basic research which underlies advances in our understanding of the ocean. "Sea Change" addresses the strategic investments necessary at NSF to ensure a robust ocean scientific enterprise over the next decade. This survey provides guidance from the ocean sciences community on research and facilities priorities for the coming decade and makes recommendations for funding priorities.
A Hole in the Bottom of the Sea Willard Bascom 1961
Fossil Mammals of Asia Xiaoming Wang 2013 "This book is on the emergence of mammals in Asia, based largely on new fossil finds throughout Asia and cutting-edge biostratigraphic and geochemical methods of dating the fossils and their geological substrate"--Provided by publisher.
Exploring the Earth under the Sea Neville Exon 2017-10-24 Exploring the Earth under the Sea brings to life the world’s largest and longest-lived geological research program, which has been drilling over many decades at many locations deep below the ocean floor to recover continuous cores of sediment and rock. Study of these materials has helped us understand how the Earth works now, how it has worked in the past and how it may work in the future. The cores are a wonderful source of information on the dynamic processes that form and reform the Earth, both beneath the ocean and on land. The results have revealed climate and oceanographic change on different time frames, the history of life in the sea and on land including global mass extinctions, the extraordinary story of the great masses of ‘extremophile’ microbes that live beneath the sea bed, the nature of the giant earthquakes and tsunami generated at the trenches where tectonic plates collide, and the nature of submarine volcanoes and metalliferous deposits. This book outlines the technology and enduring international partnerships that underlie the scientific ocean drilling accomplished by the first phase of IODP, currently involving 23 countries. It highlights the important role of Australian and New Zealand scientists in the program, and the great scientific benefits we have derived from our partnership since joining IODP in 2008. As well as the scientific summaries, there are personal accounts by shipboard scientists of how they found life at sea on two-month expeditions, working 12-hour shifts on a noisy drill ship.
Project Finance for the International Petroleum Industry Robert Clews 2016-04-07 This overview of project finance for the oil and gas industry covers financial markets, sources and providers of finance, financial structures, and capital raising processes. About US$300 billion of project finance debt is raised annually across several capital intensive sectors—including oil and gas, energy, infrastructure, and mining—and the oil and gas industry represents around 30% of the global project finance market. With over 25 year’s project finance experience in international banking and industry, author Robert Clews explores project finance techniques and their effectiveness in the petroleum industry. He highlights the petroleum industry players, risks, economics, and commercial/legal arrangements. With petroleum industry projects representing amongst the largest industrial activities in the world, this book ties together concepts and tools through real examples and aims to ensure that project finance will continue to play a central role in bringing together investors and lenders to finance these ventures. Combines the theory and practice of raising long-term funding for capital intensive projects with insights about the appeal of project finance to the international oil and gas industry Includes case studies and examples covering projects in the Arctic, East Africa, Latin America, North America, and Australia Emphasizes the full downstream value chain of the industry instead of limiting itself to upstream and pipeline project financing Highlights petroleum industry players, risks, economics, and commercial and legal arrangements
Encyclopedia of Solid Earth Geophysics Harsh Gupta 2011-06-29 The past few decades have witnessed the growth of the Earth Sciences in the pursuit of knowledge and understanding of the planet that we live on. This development addresses the challenging endeavor to enrich human lives with the bounties of Nature as well as to preserve the planet for the generations to come. Solid Earth Geophysics aspires to define and quantify the internal structure and processes of the Earth in terms of the principles of physics and forms the intrinsic framework, which other allied disciplines utilize for more specific investigations. The first edition of the Encyclopedia of Solid Earth Geophysics was published in 1989 by Van Nostrand Reinhold publishing company. More than two decades later, this new volume, edited by Prof. Harsh K. Gupta, represents a thoroughly revised and expanded reference work. It brings together more than 200 articles covering established and new concepts of Geophysics across the various sub-disciplines such as Gravity, Geodesy, Geomagnetism, Seismology, Seismics, Deep Earth Processes, Plate Tectonics, Thermal Domains, Computational Methods, etc. in a systematic and consistent format and standard. It is an authoritative and current reference source with extraordinary width of scope. It draws its unique strength from the expert contributions of editors and authors across the globe. It is designed to serve as a valuable and cherished source of information for current and future generations of professionals.
Scientific Drilling 2009
White Paper on Science and Technology 2010
The Mountain Mystery Ron Miksha 2014-08-01 Fifty years ago, no one could explain mountains. Arguments about their origin were spirited, to say the least. Progressive scientists were ridiculed for their ideas. Most geologists thought the Earth was shrinking. Contracting like a hot ball of iron, shrinking and exposing ridges that became mountains. Others were quite sure the planet was expanding. Growth widened sea basins and raised mountains. There was yet another idea, the theory that the world's crust was broken into big plates that jostled around, drifting until they collided and jarred mountains into existence. That idea was invariably dismissed as pseudo-science. Or "utter damned rot" as one prominent scientist said. But the doubtful theory of plate tectonics prevailed. Mountains, earthquakes, ancient ice ages, even veins of gold and fields of oil are now seen as the offspring of moving tectonic plates. Just half a century ago, most geologists sternly rejected the idea of drifting continents. But a few intrepid champions of plate tectonics dared to differ. The Mountain Mystery tells their story.
A Memory of Ice Elizabeth Truswell 2019-08-01 In the southern summer of 1972/73, the Glomar Challenger was the first vessel of the international Deep Sea Drilling Project to venture into the seas surrounding Antarctica, confronting severe weather and ever-present icebergs. A Memory of Ice presents the science and the excitement of that voyage in a manner readable for non-scientists. Woven into the modern story is the history of early explorers, scientists and navigators who had gone before into the Southern Ocean. The departure of the Glomar Challenger from Fremantle took place 100 years after the HMS Challenger weighed anchor from Portsmouth, England, at the start of its four-year voyage, sampling and dredging the world’s oceans. Sailing south, the Glomar Challenger crossed the path of James Cook’s HMS Resolution, then on its circumnavigation of Antarctica in search of the Great South Land. Encounters with Lieutenant Charles Wilkes of the US Exploring Expedition and Douglas Mawson of the Australasian Antarctic Expedition followed. In the Ross Sea, the voyages of the HMS Erebus and HMS Terror under James Clark Ross, with the young Joseph Hooker as botanist, were ever present. The story of the Glomar Challenger’s iconic voyage is largely told through the diaries of the author, then a young scientist experiencing science at sea for the first time. It weaves together the physical history of Antarctica with how we have come to our current knowledge of the polar continent. This is an attractive, lavishly illustrated and curiosity-satisfying read for the general public as well as for scholars of science.
Submarine Geomorphology Aaron Micallef 2017-07-18 This book on the current state of knowledge of submarine geomorphology aims to achieve the goals of the Submarine Geomorphology working group, set up in 2013, by establishing submarine geomorphology as a field of research, disseminating its concepts and techniques among earth scientists and professionals, and encouraging students to develop their skills and knowledge in this field. Editors have invited 30 experts from around the world to contribute chapters to this book, which is divided into 4 sections – (i) Introduction & history, (ii) Data & methods, (ii) Submarine landforms & processes and (iv) Conclusions & future directions. Each chapter provides a review of a topic, establishes the state-of-the-art, identifies the key research questions that need to be addressed, and delineates a strategy on how to achieve this. Submarine geomorphology is a priority for many research institutions, government authorities and industries globally. The book is useful for undergraduate and graduate students, and professionals with limited training in this field.
White Paper on Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology 2009
Ecological Management of Pine Forests 2019-01-24 Natural pine forests characterize many landscapes preserved over time, either as a result of a specific forest management practice or a disturbance. In the event of a lack of management over a long period of time, these formations could evolve with increasingly chaotic structures towards other formations. This process can lead to landscape change, the spread of insects and pathogens, and the risk of fires and watercourse obstruction. Pine forest plantations should be considered as transient tree populations, destined to evolve into more complex and stable formations. However, sometimes they should be preserved for their cultural value. Careful management of these forests also takes into account the close relationship between forest and human settlements. As a first step, ecological management assumes the definition of these two macro types. These approaches include the application of integrated methods for determining the reference conditions of the main functional and structural ecosystem components of forests. The reference conditions are the historical (or natural) variability range of ecological structures and processes, reflecting the recent evolution and dynamic interaction of biotic and abiotic conditions and patterns of disturbance. These conditions form the basis for comparison with contemporary ecosystem processes and structures and are a frame of reference for designing ecological restoration treatments and conservation plans. The productive aspects must not be overlooked; rather, they have to be considered, planned, and managed with a perspective of sustainability and ecosystem functionality. This should be considered for a common approach to forest management, for a forest rehabilitation, and for forest restoration activities.
Soil and Culture Edward R. Landa 2010-01-28 SOIL: beneath our feet / food and fiber / ashes to ashes, dust to dust / dirt!Soil has been called the final frontier of environmental research. The critical role of soil in biogeochemical processes is tied to its properties and place—porous, structured, and spatially variable, it serves as a conduit, buffer, and transformer of water, solutes and gases. Yet what is complex, life-giving, and sacred to some, is ordinary, even ugly, to others. This is the enigma that is soil. Soil and Culture explores the perception of soil in ancient, traditional, and modern societies. It looks at the visual arts (painting, textiles, sculpture, architecture, film, comics and stamps), prose & poetry, religion, philosophy, anthropology, archaeology, wine production, health & diet, and disease & warfare. Soil and Culture explores high culture and popular culture—from the paintings of Hieronymus Bosch to the films of Steve McQueen. It looks at ancient societies and contemporary artists. Contributors from a variety of disciplines delve into the mind of Carl Jung and the bellies of soil eaters, and explore Chinese paintings, African mud cloths, Mayan rituals, Japanese films, French comic strips, and Russian poetry.
50 Years of Ocean Discovery National Research Council 2000-01-03 This book describes the development of ocean sciences over the past 50 years, highlighting the contributions of the National Science Foundation (NSF) to the field's progress. Many of the individuals who participated in the exciting discoveries in biological oceanography, chemical oceanography, physical oceanography, and marine geology and geophysics describe in the book how the discoveries were made possible by combinations of insightful individuals, new technology, and in some cases, serendipity. In addition to describing the advance of ocean science, the book examines the institutional structures and technology that made the advances possible and presents visions of the field's future. This book is the first-ever documentation of the history of NSF’s Division of Ocean Sciences, how the structure of the division evolved to its present form, and the individuals who have been responsible for ocean sciences at NSF as “rotators†and career staff over the past 50 years.
World Atlas of Submarine Gas Hydrates in Continental Margins Jürgen Mienert 2021-12-17 This world atlas presents a comprehensive overview of the gas-hydrate systems of our planet with contributions from esteemed international researchers from academia, governmental institutions and hydrocarbon industries. The book illustrates, describes and discusses gas hydrate systems, their geophysical evidence and their future prospects for climate change and continental margin geohazards from passive to active margins. This includes passive volcanic to non-volcanic margins including glaciated and non-glaciated margins from high to low latitudes. Shallow submarine gas hydrates allow a glimpse into the past from the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) to modern environmental conditions to predict potential changes in future stability conditions while deep submarine gas hydrates remained more stable. This demonstrates their potential for rapid reactions for some gas hydrate provinces to a warming world, as well as helping to identify future prospects for environmental research. Three-dimensional and high-resolution seismic imaging technologies provide new insights into fluid flow systems in continental margins, enabling the identification of gas and gas escape routes to the seabed within gas hydrate environments, where seabed habitats may flourish. The volume contains a method section detailing the seismic imaging and logging while drilling techniques used to characterize gas hydrates and related dynamic processes in the sub seabed. This book is unique, as it goes well beyond the geophysical monograph series of natural gas hydrates and textbooks on marine geophysics. It also emphasizes the potential for gas hydrate research across a variety of disciplines. Observations of bottom simulating reflectors (BSRs) in 2D and 3D seismic reflection data combined with velocity analysis, electromagnetic investigations and gas-hydrate stability zone (GHSZ) modelling, provide the necessary insights for academic interests and hydrocarbon industries to understand the potential extent and volume of gas hydrates in a wide range of tectonic settings of continental margins. Gas hydrates control the largest and most dynamic reservoir of global carbon. Especially 4D, 3D seismic but also 2D seismic data provide compelling sub-seabed images of their dynamical behavior. Sub-seabed imaging techniques increase our understanding of the controlling mechanisms for the distribution and migration of gas before it enters the gas-hydrate stability zone. As methane hydrate stability depends mainly on pressure, temperature, gas composition and pore water chemistry, gas hydrates are usually found in ocean margin settings where water depth is more than 300 m and gas migrates upward from deeper geological formations. This highly dynamic environment may precondition the stability of continental slopes as evidenced by geohazards and gas expelled from the sea floor. This book provides new insights into variations in the character and existence of gas hydrates and BSRs in various geological environments, as well as their dynamics. The potentially dynamic behavior of this natural carbon system in a warming world, its current and future impacts on a variety of Earth environments can now be adequately evaluated by using the information provided in the world atlas. This book is relevant for students, researchers, governmental agencies and oil and gas professionals. Some familiarity with seismic data and some basic understanding of geology and tectonics are recommended.
Energy from Gas Hydrates: Assessing the Opportunities and Challenges for Canada Council of Canadian Academies 2008
Subsea Engineering Handbook Yong Bai 2012 Subsea production systems, overview of subsea engineering, subsea field development, subsea distribution system.Flow assurance and system engineering. Susea structure and equiment. Subsea umbilical, risers and flowlines.
Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics in Memory of Ragnar Sigbjörnsson Rajesh Rupakhety 2017-12-07 This book presents methods and results that cover and extend beyond the state-of-the-art in structural dynamics and earthquake engineering. Most of the chapters are based on the keynote lectures at the International Conference in Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics (ICESD), held in Reykjavik, Iceland, on June 12-14, 2017. The conference is being organised in memory of late Professor Ragnar Sigbjörnsson, who was an influential teacher and one of the leading researchers in the fields of structural mechanics, random fields, engineering seismology and earthquake engineering. Professor Sigbjörnsson had a close research collaboration with the Norwegian Institute of Science and Technology (NTNU), where his research was mainly focused in dynamics of marine and offshore structures. His research in Iceland was mainly focused on engineering seismology and earthquake engineering. The keynote-lecture based chapters are contributed by leading experts in these fields of research and showcase not only the historical perspective but also the most recent developments as well as a glimpse into the future. These chapters showcase a synergy of the fields of structural dynamics, engineering seismology, and earthquake engineering. In addition, some chapters in the book are based on works carried out under the leadership and initiative of Professor Sigbjörnsson and showcase his contribution to the understanding of seismic hazard and risk in Iceland. As such, the book is useful for both researchers and practicing engineers who are interested in recent research advances in structural dynamics and earthquake engineering, and in particular to those interested in seismic hazard and risk in Iceland.
Well Testing Project Management Paul J. Nardone 2009-06-16 Well test planning is one of the most important phrases in the life cycle of a well, if done improperly it could cost millions. Now there is a reference to ensure you get it right the first time. Written by a Consultant Completions & Well Test Engineer with decades of experience, Well Test Planning and Operations provides a road map to guide the reader through the maze of governmental regulations, industry codes, local standards and practices. This book describes how to plan a fit-for-purpose and fault free well test, and to produce the documents required for regulatory compliance. Given the level of activity in the oil and gas industry and the shortage of experienced personnel, this book will appeal to many specialists sitting in drilling, completion or exploration departments around the world who find themselves in the business of planning a well test, and yet who may lack expertise in that specialty. Nardone provides a roadmap to guide the planner through this complex subject, showing how to write the necessary documentation and to coordinate the many different tasks and activities, which constitute well test planning. Taking the reader from the basis for design through the well Test program to well test reports and finally to the all-important learning to ensure continuous improvement. Identification and prioritization of well test objectives Confirmation of well test requirements Preparation of detailed well test programs Selection and qualification of test equipment Onsite (onshore and offshore) engineering support and test supervision Detailed well test interpretation Definition of Extended Well Test (EWT) requirements
Thermal History of Sedimentary Basins Nancy D. Naeser 2012-12-06 The collection of papers in this volume is a direct result of the Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists Research Symposium on "Thermal History of Sedimentary Basins: Methods and Case Histories" held as part of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists Annual Convention in New Orleans in March 1985. The original goal of the sym posium was to provide a forum where specialists from a variety of dis ciplines could present their views of methods that can be used to study the thermal history of a sedimentary basin or an important portion of a basin. An explicit part of that goal was to illustrate each method by presentation of a case history application. The original goal is addressed by the chapters in this volume, each of which emphasizes a somewhat different approach and gives field data in one way or another to illustrate the practical useful ness ofthe method. The significance of our relative ignorance of the thermal conductivities of sedimentary rocks, especially shales, in efforts to understand or model sedimentary basin thermal histories and maturation levels is a major thrust of the chapter by Blackwell and Steele. Creaney focuses on variations in kerogen composition in source rocks of different depositional environments and the degree to which these chem- . ically distinct kerogens respond differently to progressive burial heating.
Mechanism of Sedimentary Basin Formation Yasuto Itoh 2013-08-28 This book is devoted to the mechanisms of sedimentary basin formation on active plate margins, which show enormous diversity reflecting complex tectonic processes. Multidisciplinary approach pursuing basin-forming mechanism is based on geology, sedimentology, geochronology and geophysics. Some chapters are dedicated to the genetic analysis of sedimentary basins in wrench deformation zones in forearc and intra-arc regions. Another block of chapters deals with basin formation in peripheral regions of Eurasia and intra-arc / foreland basins under the influence of the fluctuation of stress regimes. Finally geophysical approaches to basin analyses are shown in some chapters from microscopic to regional scales. Diverse contents of the chapters provide the audience with the present accomplishments of basin researches on active margins by Earth scientists.
Critical Infrastructure for Ocean Research and Societal Needs in 2030 National Research Council 2011-06-24 The United States has jurisdiction over 3.4 million square miles of ocean in its exclusive economic zone, a size exceeding the combined land area of the 50 states. This expansive marine area represents a prime national domain for activities such as maritime transportation, national security, energy and mineral extraction, fisheries and aquaculture, and tourism and recreation. However, it also carries with it the threat of damaging and outbreaks of waterborne pathogens. The 2010 Gulf of Mexico Deepwater Horizon oil spill and the 2011 Japanese earthquake and tsunami are vivid reminders that ocean activities and processes have direct human implications both nationally and worldwide, understanding of the ocean system is still incomplete, and ocean research infrastructure is needed to support both fundamental research and societal priorities. Given current struggles to maintain, operate, and upgrade major infrastructure elements while maintaining a robust research portfolio, a strategic plan is needed for future investments to ensure that new facilities provide the greatest value, least redundancy, and highest efficiency in terms of operation and flexibility to incorporate new technological advances. Critical Infrastructure for Ocean Research and Societal Needs in 2030 identifies major research questions anticipated to be at the forefront of ocean science in 2030 based on national and international assessments, input from the worldwide scientific community, and ongoing research planning activities. This report defines categories of infrastructure that should be included in planning for the nation's ocean research infrastructure of 2030 and that will be required to answer the major research questions of the future. Critical Infrastructure for Ocean Research and Societal Needs in 2030 provides advice on the criteria and processes that could be used to set priorities for the development of new ocean infrastructure or replacement of existing facilities. In addition, this report recommends ways in which the federal agencies can maximize the value of investments in ocean infrastructure.
Micro-XRF Studies of Sediment Cores Ian W. Croudace 2015-07-21 This volume presents papers on the use of micro-XRF core scanners in palaeoenvironmental research. It contains a broad ranging view of instrument capability and points to future developments that will help contribute to higher precision elemental data and faster core analysis. Readers will find a diverse range of research by leading experts that have used micro-XRF core scanners in a wide range of scientific applications. The book includes specific application papers reporting on the use of XRF core scanners in a variety of marine, lacustrine, and pollution studies. In addition, coverage also examines practical aspects of core scanner usage, data optimisation and data calibration and interpretation. In a little over a decade, micro-XRF sediment core scanners have made a substantive contribution to palaeoenvironmental research. Their impact is based on their ability to rapidly, non-destructively and automatically scan sediment cores. Not only do they rapidly provide important proxy data without damaging samples, but they can obtain environmental data at decadal, annual and even sub-annual scales. This volume will help both experienced and new users of these non-destructive core scanners take full advantage of one of the most powerful geochemical screening tools in the environmental scientist's toolbox.
Exploration of the Seas National Research Council 2003-12-04 In the summer of 1803, Thomas Jefferson sent Meriwether Lewis and William Clark on a journey to establish an American presence in a land of unqualified natural resources and riches. Is it fitting that, on the 200th anniversary of that expedition, the United States, together with international partners, should embark on another journey of exploration in a vastly more extensive region of remarkable potential for discovery. Although the oceans cover more than 70 percent of our planet’s surface, much of the ocean has been investigated in only a cursory sense, and many areas have not been investigated at all. Exploration of the Seas assesses the feasibility and potential value of implementing a major, coordinated, international program of ocean exploration and discovery. The study committee surveys national and international ocean programs and strategies for cooperation between governments, institutions, and ocean scientists and explorers, identifying strengths, weaknesses, and gaps in these activities. Based primarily on existing documents, the committee summarizes priority areas for ocean research and exploration and examines existing plans for advancing ocean exploration and knowledge.
Continental Scientific Drilling Ulrich Harms 2007-04-16 This volume provides a review and synthesizes the accomplishments of the past decade of the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program. More importantly, it defines opportunities for scientific advancement through future drilling projects addressing a broad range of disciplines in the Earth Sciences. In addition there is a review of all past projects that were supported by the ICDP, as well as of technical aspects associated with continental drilling.
Facilities Management Models, Methods and Tools Per Anker Jensen 2019-05-28 This book presents research tested models, methods and tools that can make the work of the facilities manager more robust and sustainable, help long-term strategic planning and support students and practitioners in FM to improve the way they approach and deal with challenges in practice. The 34 models, methods and tools are presented in relation to five typical challenges for facilities managers: Strategy development Organisational design Space planning Building projects Optimisation The chapters are short and concise, presenting a central illustration of one model, method or tool with explanatory text and short, exemplary case studies. Each chapter includes references to further reading, and the book includes a keyword index. Essential reading for all involved in the management of built assets, this book bridges the gap between robust academic research and practical industry tools. It can also be used as a handy student reference.
Tokyo Camera Style John Sypal 2015-02-01 Proving that camera gear does matter, the Sartorialist of the camera world John Sypal introduces us to Tokyos trend-setting, style-conscious photography freaks. Following the success of his Tokyo Camera Style blog, which has a devoted and passionate international following, and has spawned a network of copycat blogs worldwide, the man who did it first and the man who does it best selects 300 of his choicest images and puts them between two covers. This fun take on the ever-popular street fashion phenomenon celebrates a uniquely Japanese tribe of camera obsessives for whom image-making means everything.
Life at High Pressure Alister Macdonald 2021-07-12 The book discusses the ways in which high hydrostatic pressure (i.e. water pressure) affects all grades of life which thrive at pressures much greater those in our normal environment. The deep sea is the best known high pressure environment, where pressures reach a thousand times greater than those at the surface, yet it is populated by a variety of animals and microorganisms. The earth’s crust supports microorganisms which live in water filled pores at high pressure. In addition, the load bearing joints of animals like ourselves experience pulses of hydrostatic pressure of a magnitude similar to the pressure at mid ocean depths. These pressures affect molecular structures and biochemical reactions. Basic cellular processes are drastically affected – the growth and division of cells, the way nerves conduct impulses and the chemical reactions which provide energy. Adaptation to high pressure also occurs in complex physiological systems such as those which provide buoyancy. Probably the greatest challenge to our understanding of adaptation to high pressure is the stabilisation of the nervous system of deep sea animals to avoid convulsions which pressure causes in shallow water animals. Additionally the book provides insight into the engineering required to study life at high pressure: equipment which can trap small deep sea animals and retrieve them at their high pressure, equivalent equipment for microorganisms, laboratory microscopes which can focus on living cells under high pressure, incubators for bacteria which require high pressure to grow, high pressure aquaria for marine animals and lastly and briefly, manned and unmanned submersible vessels, Landers and deep drill hole sampling. Rather like the organisms studied many laboratory instruments have been adapted to function at high pressure.
Stress Field of the Earth's Crust Arno Zang 2009-12-06 Stress Field of the Earth’s Crust is based on lecture notes prepared for a course offered to graduate students in the Earth sciences and engineering at University of Potsdam. In my opinion, it will undoubtedly also become a standard reference book on the desk of most scientists working with rocks, such as geophysicists, structural geologists, rock mechanics experts, as well as geotechnical and petroleum en- neers. That is because this book is concerned with what is probably the most pe- liar characteristic of rock – its initial stress condition. Rock is always under a natural state of stress, primarily a result of the gravitational and tectonic forces to which it is subjected. Crustal stresses can vary regionally and locally and can reach in places considerable magnitudes, leading to natural or man-made mechanical failure. P- existing stress distinguishes rock from most other materials and is at the core of the discipline of “Rock Mechanics”, which has been developed over the last century. Knowledge of rock stress is fundamental to understanding faulting mechanisms and earthquake triggering, to designing stable underground caverns and prod- tive oil fields, and to improving mining methods and geothermal energy extraction, among others. Several books have been written on the subject, but none has atte- ted to be as all-encompassing as the one by Zang and Stephansson.
Water, Cultural Diversity, and Global Environmental Change Barbara Rose Johnston 2011-12-07 Co-published with UNESCO A product of the UNESCO-IHP project on Water and Cultural Diversity, this book represents an effort to examine the complex role water plays as a force in sustaining, maintaining, and threatening the viability of culturally diverse peoples. It is argued that water is a fundamental human need, a human right, and a core sustaining element in biodiversity and cultural diversity. The core concepts utilized in this book draw upon a larger trend in sustainability science, a recognition of the synergism and analytical potential in utilizing a coupled biological and social systems analysis, as the functioning viability of nature is both sustained and threatened by humans.
Micropaleontology Pratul Kumar Saraswati 2015-12-17 This book will help readers learn the basic skills needed to study microfossils especially those without a formal background in paleontology. It details key principles, explains how to identify different groups of microfossils, and provides insight into their potential applications in solving geologic problems. Basic principles are addressed with examples that explore the strengths and limitations of microfossils and their geological records. This overview provides an understanding of taphonomy and quality of the fossil records, biomineralization and biogeochemistry, taxonomy, concepts of species, and basic concepts of ecology. Readers learn about the major groups of microfossils, including their morphology, ecology, and geologic history. Coverage includes: foraminifera, ostracoda, coccolithophores, pteropods, radiolaria, diatoms, silicoflagellates, conodonts, dinoflagellates, acritarch, and spores and pollens. In this coverage, marine microfossils, and particularly foraminifera, are discussed in more detail compared with the other groups as they continue to play a major role in most scientific investigations. Among the various tracers of earth history, microfossils provide the most diverse kinds of information to earth scientists. This richly illustrated volume will help students and professionals understand microfossils, and provide insight on how to work with them to better understand evolution of life, and age and the paleoenvironment of sedimentary strata.
Accretionary Prisms and Convergent Margin Tectonics in the Northwest Pacific Basin Yujiro Ogawa 2011-05-18 Accretionary prisms in convergent margins are natural laboratories for exploring initial orogenic processes and mountain building episodes. They are also an important component of continental growth both vertically and laterally. Accretionary prisms are seismically highly active and their internal deformation via megathrusting and out-of-sequence faulting are a big concern for earthquake and tsunami damage in many coastal cities around the Pacific Rim. The geometries and structures of modern accretionary prisms have been well imaged seismically and through deep drilling projects of the Ocean Drilling Program (and recently IODP) during the last 15 years. Better understanding of the spatial distribution and temporal progression of accretionary prism deformation, structural and hydrologic evolution of the décollement zone (tectonic interface between the subducting slab and the upper plate), chemical gradients and fluid flow paths within accretionary prisms, contrasting stratigraphic and deformational framework along-strike in accretionary prisms, and the distribution and ecosystems of biological communities in accretionary prism settings is most important in interpreting the evolution of ancient complex sedimentary terrains and orogenic belts in terms of subduction-related processes. This book is a collection of interdisciplinary papers documenting the geological, geophysical, geochemical, and paleontological features of modern accretionay prisms and trenches in the northwestern Pacific Ocean, based on many submersible dive cruises, ODP drilling projects, and geophysical surveys during the last 10 years. It also includes several papers presenting the results of systematic integrated studies of recent to ancient on-land accretionary prisms in comparison to modern analogues. The individual chapters are data and image rich, providing a major resource of information and knowledge from these critical components of convergent margins for researchers, faculty members, and graduate and undergraduate students. As such, the book will be a major and unique contribution in the broad fields of global tectonics, geodynamics, marine geology and geophysics, and structural geology and sedimentology.
Nature Sir Norman Lockyer 2004
New Techniques in Sediment Core Analysis R. G. Rothwell 2006 In this volume, recent advances in analytical and logging technology and their application to the analysis of sediment cores are presented. Developments in providing access to core data and associated datasets, and advances in data mining technology in order to integrate and interpret new and legacy datasets within the wider context of seafloor studies are also discussed.
Scientific Ocean Drilling National Research Council 2012-01-22 Through direct exploration of the subseafloor, U.S.-supported scientific ocean drilling programs have significantly contributed to a broad range of scientific accomplishments in Earth science disciplines, shaping understanding of Earth systems and enabling new fields of inquiry. Scientific Ocean Drilling: Accomplishments and Challenges reviews the scientific accomplishments of U.S.-supported scientific ocean drilling over the past four decades. The book evaluates how the programs (Deep Sea Drilling Project [DSDP], 1968-1983, Ocean Drilling Program [ODP], 1984-2003, and Integrated Ocean Drilling Program [IODP], 2003-2013) have shaped understanding of Earth systems and Earth history and assessed the role of scientific ocean drilling in enabling new fields of inquiry. This book also assesses the potential for transformative discoveries for the next proposed phase of scientific ocean drilling, which is scheduled to run from 2013 to 2023. The programs' technological innovations have played a strong role in these accomplishments. The science plan for the proposed 2013-2023 program presents a strong case for the continuation of scientific ocean drilling. Each of the plan's four themes identifies compelling challenges with potential for transformative science that could only be addressed through scientific ocean drilling, although some challenges appear to have greater potential than others. Prioritizing science plan challenges and integrating multiple objectives into single expeditions would help use resources more effectively, while encouraging technological innovations would continue to increase the potential for groundbreaking science.
Core-log Integration Peter K. Harvey 1998
Quantitative Analysis of Geopressure for Geoscientists and Engineers Nader C. Dutta 2021-02-28 Geopressure, or excess pore pressure in subsurface rock formations that is higher than the hydrostatic pressure, is a worldwide phenomenon which impacts hydrocarbon resource estimation, drilling and drilling safety in operations. This book provides a comprehensive overview of geopressure analysis bringing together rock physics, seismic technology, quantitative basin modeling and geomechanics. It provides a fundamental physical and geological basis for understanding geopressure by explaining the coupled mechanical and thermal processes. It also brings together state-of-the-art tools and technologies for analysis and detection of geopressure, along with the associated uncertainty. Prediction and detection of shallow geohazards and gas hydrates is also discussed and field examples are used to illustrate how models can be practically applied. With supplementary MATLAB® codes and exercises available online, this is an ideal resource for students, researchers and industry professionals in geoscience and petroleum engineering looking to understand and analyse subsurface formation pressure.
Subseafloor Biosphere Linked to Hydrothermal Systems Jun-ichiro Ishibashi 2015-01-10 This book is the comprehensive volume of the TAIGA (“a great river ” in Japanese) project. Supported by the Japanese government, the project examined the hypothesis that the subseafloor fluid advection system (subseafloor TAIGA) can be categorized into four types, TAIGAs of sulfur, hydrogen, carbon (methane), and iron, according to the most dominant reducing substance, and the chemolithoautotrophic bacteria/archaea that are inextricably associated with respective types of TAIGAs which are strongly affected by their geological background such as surrounding host rocks and tectonic settings. Sub-seafloor ecosystems are sustained by hydrothermal circulation or TAIGA that carry chemical energy to the chemosynthetic microbes living in an extreme environment. The results of the project have been summarized comprehensively in 50 chapters, and this book provides an overall introduction and relevant topics on the mid-ocean ridge system of the Indian Ocean and on the arc-backarc systems of the Southern Mariana Trough and Okinawa Trough.

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