Science Paper Model - Bacteriophage T4 Virus Free Papercraft Download

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Science Paper Model - Bacteriophage T4 Virus Free Papercraft DownloadThis  is the Bacteriophage T4 Virus, the papercraft was created by soilshop. The bacteriophage T4 is a bacteriophage that infects E. coli bacteria. Its double-stranded DNA genome is about 169 kbp long and is held in an icosahedral head, also known as a capsid. T4 is a relatively large phage, at approximately 90 nm wide and 200 nm long. Its tail fibres allow attachment to a host cell, and the T4’s tail is hollow so that it can pass its nucleic acid to the cell it is infecting during attachment. T4 is capable of undergoing only a lytic lifecycle and not the lysogenic lifecycle. is a bacteriophage that infects E. coli bacteria. Its double-stranded DNA genome is about 169 kbp long and is held in an icosahedral head, also known as a capsid. T4 is a relatively large phage, at approximately 90 nm wide and 200 nm long. Its tail fibres allow attachment to a host cell, and the T4’s tail is hollow so that it can pass its nucleic acid to the cell it is infecting during attachment. T4 is capable of undergoing only a lytic lifecycle and not the lysogenic lifecycle.

The T4 Phage initiates an E. coli infection by recognizing cell surface receptors of the host with its long tail fibers (LTF). A recognition signal is sent through the LTFs to the baseplate. This unravels the short tail fibers (STF) that bind irreversibly to the E. coli cell surface. The baseplate changes conformation and the tail sheath contracts causing GP5 at the end of the tail tube to puncture the outer membrane of the cell. The lysozyme domain of GP5 is activated and degrades the periplasmic peptidoglycan layer. The remaining part of the membrane is degraded and then DNA from the head of the phage can travel through the tail tube and enter the E. coli.

The lytic lifecycle takes approximately 30 minutes (at 37 °C) and consists of:

  • Adsorption and penetration (starting immediately)
  • Arrest of host gene expression (starting immediately)
  • Enzyme synthesis (starting after 5 minutes)
  • DNA replication (starting after 10 minutes)
  • Formation of new virus particles (starting after 12 minutes)

After the life cycle is complete, the host cell bursts open and ejects the newly built viruses into the environment, destroying the host cell. T4 has a burst size of approximately 100-150 viral particles per infected host. Complementation, deletion, and recombination tests can be used to map out the rII gene locus by using T4. These bacteriophage infect a host cell with their information and then blow up the host cell, thereby propagating themselves.

The T4 phage has some unique features, such as:

  • Eukaryote-like introns
  • High speed DNA copying mechanism, with only 1 error in 300 copies
  • Special DNA repair mechanisms
  • It infects E. coli O157:H7
  • genome terminally redundant
  • genome first replicated as a unit, and then several genomic units are recombined end-to-end to form a concatemer. When packaged, the concatemer is cut at unspecific positions but of same length, leading to several genomes that represent Circular permutations of the original. [Source: Wiki]

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